MySQL 이 현재 사용하고 있는 환경 설정 파일을 확인을 해야할 때가 있다.

이럴때 MySQL이 사용하는 my.cnf 파일의 경로의 우선 순위를 확인하여

사용하는 파일을 확인 가능하다.

명령어는 다음과 같다.

#mysqld --verbose --help | grep -A 1 'Default options'

[root@JJBOOKS-Server02 ~]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --verbose --help
140805  8:40:18 [Warning] The syntax '--log-slow-queries' is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Please use '--slow-query-log'/'--slow-query-log-file' instead.
140805  8:40:18 [ERROR] Fatal error: Please read "Security" section of the manual to find out how to run mysqld as root!

/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld  Ver 5.5.34-log for linux2.6 on x86_64 (MySQL Community Server (GPL))
Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective

Starts the MySQL database server.

Usage: /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld [OPTIONS]

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
/etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/etc/my.cnf ~/.my.cnf
The following groups are read: mysqld server mysqld-5.5
The following options may be given as the first argument:
--print-defaults        Print the program argument list and exit.
--no-defaults           Don't read default options from any option file.
--defaults-file=#       Only read default options from the given file #.
--defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read.

                      Option used by mysql-test for debugging and testing of
                      Allows use of UDFs consisting of only one symbol xxx()
                      without corresponding xxx_init() or xxx_deinit(). That
                      also means that one can load any function from any
                      library, for example exit() from
  -a, --ansi          Use ANSI SQL syntax instead of MySQL syntax. This mode
                      will also set transaction isolation level 'serializable'.
                      Auto-increment columns are incremented by this
                      Offset added to Auto-increment columns. Used when
                      auto-increment-increment != 1
  --autocommit        Set default value for autocommit (0 or 1)
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-autocommit to disable.)
                      Creating and dropping stored procedures alters ACLs
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-automatic-sp-privileges to disable.)
  --back-log=#        The number of outstanding connection requests MySQL can
                      have. This comes into play when the main MySQL thread
                      gets very many connection requests in a very short time
  -b, --basedir=name  Path to installation directory. All paths are usually
                      resolved relative to this
  --big-tables        Allow big result sets by saving all temporary sets on
                      file (Solves most 'table full' errors)
  --bind-address=name IP address to bind to.
                      The size of the transactional cache for updates to
                      transactional engines for the binary log. If you often
                      use transactions containing many statements, you can
                      increase this to get more performance
                      Causes updates to non-transactional engines using
                      statement format to be written directly to binary log.
                      Before using this option make sure that there are no
                      dependencies between transactional and non-transactional
                      tables such as in the statement INSERT INTO t_myisam
                      SELECT * FROM t_innodb; otherwise, slaves may diverge
                      from the master.
  --binlog-do-db=name Tells the master it should log updates for the specified
                      database, and exclude all others not explicitly
                      What form of binary logging the master will use: either
                      ROW for row-based binary logging, STATEMENT for
                      statement-based binary logging, or MIXED. MIXED is
                      statement-based binary logging except for those
                      statements where only row-based is correct: those which
                      involve user-defined functions (i.e. UDFs) or the UUID()
                      function; for those, row-based binary logging is
                      automatically used. If NDBCLUSTER is enabled and
                      binlog-format is MIXED, the format switches to row-based
                      and back implicitly per each query accessing an
                      NDBCLUSTER table
                      Tells the master that updates to the given database
                      should not be logged to the binary log.
                      The maximum size of a row-based binary log event in
                      bytes. Rows will be grouped into events smaller than this
                      size if possible. The value has to be a multiple of 256.
                      The size of the statement cache for updates to
                      non-transactional engines for the binary log. If you
                      often use statements updating a great number of rows, you
                      can increase this to get more performance
  --bootstrap         Used by mysql installation scripts.
                      Size of tree cache used in bulk insert optimisation. Note
                      that this is a limit per thread!
                      Don't ignore client side character set value sent during
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-character-set-client-handshake to disable.)
                      Set the filesystem character set.
  -C, --character-set-server=name
                      Set the default character set.
                      Directory where character sets are
  -r, --chroot=name   Chroot mysqld daemon during startup.
                      Set the default collation.
                      The transaction completion type, one of NO_CHAIN, CHAIN,
                      Use concurrent insert with MyISAM. Possible values are
                      NEVER, AUTO, ALWAYS
  --connect-timeout=# The number of seconds the mysqld server is waiting for a
                      connect packet before responding with 'Bad handshake'
  --console           Write error output on screen; don't remove the console
                      window on windows.
  --core-file         Write core on errors.
  -h, --datadir=name  Path to the database root directory
  --date-format=name  The DATE format (ignored)
                      The DATETIME format (ignored)
                      The default storage engine for new tables
                      Set the default time zone.
                      The default week format used by WEEK() functions
                      Type of DELAY_KEY_WRITE
                      After inserting delayed_insert_limit rows, the INSERT
                      DELAYED handler will check if there are any SELECT
                      statements pending. If so, it allows these to execute
                      before continuing
                      How long a INSERT DELAYED thread should wait for INSERT
                      statements before terminating
                      What size queue (in rows) should be allocated for
                      handling INSERT DELAYED. If the queue becomes full, any
                      client that does INSERT DELAYED will wait until there is
                      room in the queue again
  --des-key-file=name Load keys for des_encrypt() and des_encrypt from given
                      Option used by mysql-test for debugging and testing of
                      Precision of the result of '/' operator will be increased
                      on that value
                      Push supported query conditions to the storage engine.
                      Deprecated, use --optimizer-switch instead.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-engine-condition-pushdown to disable.)
                      Enable the event scheduler. Possible values are ON, OFF,
                      and DISABLED (keep the event scheduler completely
                      deactivated, it cannot be activated run-time)
  -T, --exit-info[=#] Used for debugging. Use at your own risk.
                      If non-zero, binary logs will be purged after
                      expire_logs_days days; possible purges happen at startup
                      and at binary log rotation
  --external-locking  Use system (external) locking (disabled by default).
                      With this option enabled you can run myisamchk to test
                      (not repair) tables while the MySQL server is running.
                      Disable with --skip-external-locking.
  --flush             Flush MyISAM tables to disk between SQL commands
  --flush-time=#      A dedicated thread is created to flush all tables at the
                      given interval
                      List of operators for MATCH ... AGAINST ( ... IN BOOLEAN
  --ft-max-word-len=# The maximum length of the word to be included in a
                      FULLTEXT index. Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt
                      after changing this variable
  --ft-min-word-len=# The minimum length of the word to be included in a
                      FULLTEXT index. Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt
                      after changing this variable
                      Number of best matches to use for query expansion
                      Use stopwords from this file instead of built-in list
  --gdb               Set up signals usable for debugging.
  --general-log       Log connections and queries to a table or log file.
                      Defaults logging to a file hostname.log or a table
                      mysql.general_logif --log-output=TABLE is used
                      Log connections and queries to given file
                      The maximum length of the result of function
  -?, --help          Display this help and exit.
                      DEPRECATED. This option will be removed in future
                      releases. Disable initialization of builtin InnoDB plugin
  --init-connect=name Command(s) that are executed for each new connection
  --init-file=name    Read SQL commands from this file at startup
                      Set the replication role.
  --init-slave=name   Command(s) that are executed by a slave server each time
                      the SQL thread starts
                      The number of seconds the server waits for activity on an
                      interactive connection before closing it
                      The size of the buffer that is used for full joins
                      Don't overwrite stale .MYD and .MYI even if no directory
                      is specified
  --key-buffer-size=# The size of the buffer used for index blocks for MyISAM
                      tables. Increase this to get better index handling (for
                      all reads and multiple writes) to as much as you can
                      This characterizes the number of hits a hot block has to
                      be untouched until it is considered aged enough to be
                      downgraded to a warm block. This specifies the percentage
                      ratio of that number of hits to the total number of
                      blocks in key cache
                      The default size of key cache blocks
                      The minimum percentage of warm blocks in key cache
  -L, --language=name Client error messages in given language. May be given as
                      a full path. Deprecated. Use --lc-messages-dir instead.
  --large-pages       Enable support for large pages
  --lc-messages=name  Set the language used for the error messages.
  -L, --lc-messages-dir=name
                      Directory where error messages are
                      Set the language used for the month names and the days of
                      the week.
  --local-infile      Enable LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-local-infile to disable.)
                      Timeout in seconds to wait for a lock before returning an
  -l, --log[=name]    Log connections and queries to file (deprecated option,
                      use --general-log/--general-log-file instead).
  --log-bin[=name]    Log update queries in binary format. Optional (but
                      strongly recommended to avoid replication problems if
                      server's hostname changes) argument should be the chosen
                      location for the binary log files.
                      File that holds the names for last binary log files.
                      If set to FALSE (the default), then when --log-bin is
                      used, creation of a stored function (or trigger) is
                      allowed only to users having the SUPER privilege and only
                      if this stored function (trigger) may not break binary
                      logging. Note that if ALL connections to this server
                      ALWAYS use row-based binary logging, the security issues
                      do not exist and the binary logging cannot break, so you
                      can safely set this to TRUE
  --log-error[=name]  Error log file
  --log-isam[=name]   Log all MyISAM changes to file.
  --log-output=name   Syntax: log-output=value[,value...], where "value" could
                      be TABLE, FILE or NONE
                      Log queries that are executed without benefit of any
                      index to the slow log if it is open
  --log-short-format  Don't log extra information to update and slow-query
  --log-slave-updates Tells the slave to log the updates from the slave thread
                      to the binary log. You will need to turn it on if you
                      plan to daisy-chain the slaves
                      Log slow OPTIMIZE, ANALYZE, ALTER and other
                      administrative statements to the slow log if it is open.
                      Log slow queries to a table or log file. Defaults logging
                      to table mysql.slow_log or hostname-slow.log if
                      --log-output=file is used. Must be enabled to activate
                      other slow log options. Deprecated option, use
                      --slow-query-log/--slow-query-log-file instead.
                      Log slow statements executed by slave thread to the slow
                      log if it is open.
  --log-tc=name       Path to transaction coordinator log (used for
                      transactions that affect more than one storage engine,
                      when binary log is disabled).
  --log-tc-size=#     Size of transaction coordinator log.
  -W, --log-warnings[=#]
                      Log some not critical warnings to the log file
  --long-query-time=# Log all queries that have taken more than long_query_time
                      seconds to execute to file. The argument will be treated
                      as a decimal value with microsecond precision
                      INSERT/DELETE/UPDATE has lower priority than selects
                      If set to 1 table names are stored in lowercase on disk
                      and table names will be case-insensitive.  Should be set
                      to 2 if you are using a case insensitive file system
                      The location and name of the file that remembers the
                      master and where the I/O replication thread is in the
                      master's binlogs.
                      The number of tries the slave will make to connect to the
                      master before giving up.
                      Max packet length to send to or receive from the server
                      Sets the total size of the transactional cache
                      Option used by mysql-test for debugging and testing of
  --max-binlog-size=# Binary log will be rotated automatically when the size
                      exceeds this value. Will also apply to relay logs if
                      max_relay_log_size is 0
                      Sets the total size of the statement cache
                      If there is more than this number of interrupted
                      connections from a host this host will be blocked from
                      further connections
  --max-connections=# The number of simultaneous clients allowed
                      Don't start more than this number of threads to handle
                      INSERT DELAYED statements. If set to zero INSERT DELAYED
                      will be not used
  --max-error-count=# Max number of errors/warnings to store for a statement
                      Don't allow creation of heap tables bigger than this
  --max-join-size=#   Joins that are probably going to read more than
                      max_join_size records return an error
                      Max number of bytes in sorted records
                      The maximum BLOB length to send to server from
                      mysql_send_long_data API. Deprecated option; use
                      max_allowed_packet instead.
                      Maximum number of prepared statements in the server
                      If non-zero: relay log will be rotated automatically when
                      the size exceeds this value; if zero: when the size
                      exceeds max_binlog_size
                      Limit assumed max number of seeks when looking up rows
                      based on a key
  --max-sort-length=# The number of bytes to use when sorting BLOB or TEXT
                      values (only the first max_sort_length bytes of each
                      value are used; the rest are ignored)
                      Maximum stored procedure recursion depth
  --max-tmp-tables=#  Maximum number of temporary tables a client can keep open
                      at a time
                      The maximum number of active connections for a single
                      user (0 = no limit)
                      After this many write locks, allow some read locks to run
                      in between
  --memlock           Lock mysqld in memory.
                      Size of unused metadata locks cache
                      Don't write queries to slow log that examine fewer rows
                      than that
                      Number of key ranges to request at once
                      Buffer length for TCP/IP and socket communication
                      Number of seconds to wait for more data from a connection
                      before aborting the read
  --net-retry-count=# If a read on a communication port is interrupted, retry
                      this many times before giving up
                      Number of seconds to wait for a block to be written to a
                      connection before aborting the write
  -n, --new           Use very new possible "unsafe" functions
  --old               Use compatible behavior
  --old-alter-table   Use old, non-optimized alter table
  --old-passwords     Use old password encryption method (needed for 4.0 and
                      older clients)
                      Enable old-style user limits (before 5.0.3, user
                      resources were counted per each user+host vs. per
  --one-thread        (Deprecated): Only use one thread (for debugging under
                      Linux). Use thread-handling=no-threads instead.
                      If this is not 0, then mysqld will use this value to
                      reserve file descriptors to use with setrlimit(). If this
                      value is 0 then mysqld will reserve max_connections*5 or
                      max_connections + table_cache*2 (whichever is larger)
                      number of file descriptors
                      Controls the heuristic(s) applied during query
                      optimization to prune less-promising partial plans from
                      the optimizer search space. Meaning: 0 - do not apply any
                      heuristic, thus perform exhaustive search; 1 - prune
                      plans based on number of retrieved rows
                      Maximum depth of search performed by the query optimizer.
                      Values larger than the number of relations in a query
                      result in better query plans, but take longer to compile
                      a query. Values smaller than the number of tables in a
                      relation result in faster optimization, but may produce
                      very bad query plans. If set to 0, the system will
                      automatically pick a reasonable value; if set to 63, the
                      optimizer will switch to the original find_best search.
                      NOTE: The value 63 and its associated behaviour is
                      optimizer_switch=option=val[,option=val...], where option
                      is one of {index_merge, index_merge_union,
                      index_merge_sort_union, index_merge_intersection,
                      engine_condition_pushdown} and val is one of {on, off,
                      Enable the performance schema.
                      Number of rows in EVENTS_WAITS_HISTORY_LONG.
                      Number of rows per thread in EVENTS_WAITS_HISTORY.
                      Maximum number of condition instruments.
                      Maximum number of instrumented condition objects.
                      Maximum number of file instruments.
                      Maximum number of opened instrumented files.
                      Maximum number of instrumented files.
                      Maximum number of mutex instruments.
                      Maximum number of instrumented MUTEX objects.
                      Maximum number of rwlock instruments.
                      Maximum number of instrumented RWLOCK objects.
                      Maximum number of opened instrumented tables.
                      Maximum number of instrumented tables.
                      Maximum number of thread instruments.
                      Maximum number of instrumented threads.
  --pid-file=name     Pid file used by safe_mysqld
  --plugin-dir=name   Directory for plugins
  --plugin-load=name  Optional semicolon-separated list of plugins to load,
                      where each plugin is identified as name=library, where
                      name is the plugin name and library is the plugin library
                      in plugin_dir.
  -P, --port=#        Port number to use for connection or 0 to default to,
                      my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT, /etc/services, built-in default
                      (3306), whatever comes first
                      Maximum time in seconds to wait for the port to become
                      free. (Default: No wait).
                      The size of the buffer that is allocated when preloading
                      Limit of query profiling memory
                      Allocation block size for query parsing and execution
                      Don't cache results that are bigger than this
                      The minimum size for blocks allocated by the query cache
                      The memory allocated to store results from old queries
                      OFF = Don't cache or retrieve results. ON = Cache all
                      results except SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE ... queries. DEMAND =
                      Cache only SELECT SQL_CACHE ... queries
                      Invalidate queries in query cache on LOCK for write
                      Persistent buffer for query parsing and execution
                      Allocation block size for storing ranges during
                      Each thread that does a sequential scan allocates a
                      buffer of this size for each table it scans. If you do
                      many sequential scans, you may want to increase this
  --read-only         Make all non-temporary tables read-only, with the
                      exception for replication (slave) threads and users with
                      the SUPER privilege
                      When reading rows in sorted order after a sort, the rows
                      are read through this buffer to avoid a disk seeks
  --relay-log=name    The location and name to use for relay logs
                      The location and name to use for the file that keeps a
                      list of the last relay logs
                      The location and name of the file that remembers where
                      the SQL replication thread is in the relay logs
  --relay-log-purge   if disabled - do not purge relay logs. if enabled - purge
                      them as soon as they are no more needed
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-relay-log-purge to disable.)
                      Enables automatic relay log recovery right after the
                      database startup, which means that the IO Thread starts
                      re-fetching from the master right after the last
                      transaction processed
                      Maximum space to use for all relay logs
                      Tells the slave thread to restrict replication to the
                      specified database. To specify more than one database,
                      use the directive multiple times, once for each database.
                      Note that this will only work if you do not use
                      cross-database queries such as UPDATE some_db.some_table
                      SET foo='bar' while having selected a different or no
                      database. If you need cross database updates to work,
                      make sure you have 3.23.28 or later, and use
                      Tells the slave thread to restrict replication to the
                      specified table. To specify more than one table, use the
                      directive multiple times, once for each table. This will
                      work for cross-database updates, in contrast to
                      Tells the slave thread to not replicate to the specified
                      database. To specify more than one database to ignore,
                      use the directive multiple times, once for each database.
                      This option will not work if you use cross database
                      updates. If you need cross database updates to work, make
                      sure you have 3.23.28 or later, and use
                      Tells the slave thread to not replicate to the specified
                      table. To specify more than one table to ignore, use the
                      directive multiple times, once for each table. This will
                      work for cross-database updates, in contrast to
                      Updates to a database with a different name than the
                      original. Example:
                      In replication, if set to 1, do not skip events having
                      our server id. Default value is 0 (to break infinite
                      loops in circular replication). Can't be set to 1 if
                      --log-slave-updates is used.
                      Tells the slave thread to restrict replication to the
                      tables that match the specified wildcard pattern. To
                      specify more than one table, use the directive multiple
                      times, once for each table. This will work for
                      cross-database updates. Example:
             will replicate only
                      updates to tables in all databases that start with foo
                      and whose table names start with bar.
                      Tells the slave thread to not replicate to the tables
                      that match the given wildcard pattern. To specify more
                      than one table to ignore, use the directive multiple
                      times, once for each table. This will work for
                      cross-database updates. Example:
             will not do updates
                      to tables in databases that start with foo and whose
                      table names start with bar.
  --report-host=name  Hostname or IP of the slave to be reported to the master
                      during slave registration. Will appear in the output of
                      SHOW SLAVE HOSTS. Leave unset if you do not want the
                      slave to register itself with the master. Note that it is
                      not sufficient for the master to simply read the IP of
                      the slave off the socket once the slave connects. Due to
                      NAT and other routing issues, that IP may not be valid
                      for connecting to the slave from the master or other
                      The account password of the slave to be reported to the
                      master during slave registration
  --report-port=#     Port for connecting to slave reported to the master
                      during slave registration. Set it only if the slave is
                      listening on a non-default port or if you have a special
                      tunnel from the master or other clients to the slave. If
                      not sure, leave this option unset
  --report-user=name  The account user name of the slave to be reported to the
                      master during slave registration
                      Unused, will be removed
  --safe-mode         Skip some optimize stages (for testing). Deprecated.
  --safe-user-create  Don't allow new user creation by the user who has no
                      write privileges to the mysql.user table.
  --secure-auth       Disallow authentication for accounts that have old
                      (pre-4.1) passwords
                      Limit LOAD DATA, SELECT ... OUTFILE, and LOAD_FILE() to
                      files within specified directory
  --server-id=#       Uniquely identifies the server instance in the community
                      of replication partners
                      Show user and password in SHOW SLAVE HOSTS on this
  --skip-grant-tables Start without grant tables. This gives all users FULL
                      ACCESS to all tables.
  --skip-host-cache   Don't cache host names.
  --skip-name-resolve Don't resolve hostnames. All hostnames are IP's or
  --skip-networking   Don't allow connection with TCP/IP
  --skip-new          Don't use new, possibly wrong routines.
                      Don't allow 'SHOW DATABASE' commands
  --skip-slave-start  If set, slave is not autostarted.
  --skip-stack-trace  Don't print a stack trace on failure.
                      Don't give threads different priorities. This option is
                      deprecated because it has no effect; the implied behavior
                      is already the default.
                      Use compression on master/slave protocol
                      Modes for how replication events should be executed.
                      Legal values are STRICT (default) and IDEMPOTENT. In
                      IDEMPOTENT mode, replication will not stop for operations
                      that are idempotent. In STRICT mode, replication will
                      stop on any unexpected difference between the master and
                      the slave
                      The location where the slave should put its temporary
                      files when replicating a LOAD DATA INFILE command
                      The maximum packet length to sent successfully from the
                      master to slave.
                      Number of seconds to wait for more data from a
                      master/slave connection before aborting the read
                      Tells the slave thread to continue replication when a
                      query event returns an error from the provided list
                      Number of times the slave SQL thread will retry a
                      transaction in case it failed with a deadlock or elapsed
                      lock wait timeout, before giving up and stopping
                      Set of slave type conversions that are enabled. Legal
                      values are: ALL_LOSSY to enable lossy conversions and
                      ALL_NON_LOSSY to enable non-lossy conversions. If the
                      variable is assigned the empty set, no conversions are
                      allowed and it is expected that the types match exactly.
                      If creating the thread takes longer than this value (in
                      seconds), the Slow_launch_threads counter will be
  --slow-query-log    Log slow queries to a table or log file. Defaults logging
                      to a file hostname-slow.log or a table mysql.slow_log if
                      --log-output=TABLE is used. Must be enabled to activate
                      other slow log options
                      Log slow queries to given log file. Defaults logging to
                      hostname-slow.log. Must be enabled to activate other slow
                      log options
  --socket=name       Socket file to use for connection
                      Each thread that needs to do a sort allocates a buffer of
                      this size
                      Option used by mysql-test for debugging and testing of
  --sql-mode=name     Syntax: sql-mode=mode[,mode[,mode...]]. See the manual
                      for the complete list of valid sql modes
  --ssl               Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with
                      other flags).
  --ssl-ca=name       CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl)
  --ssl-capath=name   CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl)
  --ssl-cert=name     X509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl)
  --ssl-cipher=name   SSL cipher to use (implies --ssl)
  --ssl-key=name      X509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl)
                      The soft upper limit for number of cached stored routines
                      for one connection.
  --super-large-pages Enable support for super large pages.
  -s, --symbolic-links
                      Enable symbolic link support.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-symbolic-links to disable.)
  --sync-binlog=#     Synchronously flush binary log to disk after every #th
                      event. Use 0 (default) to disable synchronous flushing
  --sync-frm          Sync .frm files to disk on creation
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-sync-frm to disable.)
                      Synchronously flush master info to disk after every #th
                      event. Use 0 (default) to disable synchronous flushing
  --sync-relay-log=#  Synchronously flush relay log to disk after every #th
                      event. Use 0 (default) to disable synchronous flushing
                      Synchronously flush relay log info to disk after every
                      #th transaction. Use 0 (default) to disable synchronous
  --sysdate-is-now    Non-default option to alias SYSDATE() to NOW() to make it
                      safe-replicable. Since 5.0, SYSDATE() returns a `dynamic'
                      value different for different invocations, even within
                      the same statement.
  --table-cache=#     Deprecated; use --table-open-cache instead.
                      The number of cached table definitions
                      The number of cached open tables
                      Decision to use in heuristic recover process. Possible
                      values are COMMIT or ROLLBACK.
  --temp-pool         Using this option will cause most temporary files created
                      to use a small set of names, rather than a unique name
                      for each new file.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-temp-pool to disable.)
                      How many threads we should keep in a cache for reuse
                      Permits the application to give the threads system a hint
                      for the desired number of threads that should be run at
                      the same time
                      Define threads usage for handling queries, one of
                      one-thread-per-connection, no-threads, loaded-dynamically
  --thread-stack=#    The stack size for each thread
  --time-format=name  The TIME format (ignored)
  --timed-mutexes     Specify whether to time mutexes (only InnoDB mutexes are
                      currently supported)
  --tmp-table-size=#  If an internal in-memory temporary table exceeds this
                      size, MySQL will automatically convert it to an on-disk
                      MyISAM table
  -t, --tmpdir=name   Path for temporary files. Several paths may be specified,
                      separated by a colon (:), in this case they are used in a
                      round-robin fashion
                      Allocation block size for transactions to be stored in
                      binary log
                      Default transaction isolation level.
                      Persistent buffer for transactions to be stored in binary
                      YES = Don't issue an error message (warning only) if a
                      VIEW without presence of a key of the underlying table is
                      used in queries with a LIMIT clause for updating. NO =
                      Prohibit update of a VIEW, which does not contain a key
                      of the underlying table and the query uses a LIMIT clause
                      (usually get from GUI tools)
  -u, --user=name     Run mysqld daemon as user.
  -v, --verbose       Used with --help option for detailed help.
  -V, --version       Output version information and exit.
  --wait-timeout=#    The number of seconds the server waits for activity on a
                      connection before closing it

Variables (--variable-name=value)
and boolean options {FALSE|TRUE}                  Value (after reading options)
------------------------------------------------- ------------------------
abort-slave-event-count                           0
allow-suspicious-udfs                             FALSE
auto-increment-increment                          1
auto-increment-offset                             1
autocommit                                        TRUE
automatic-sp-privileges                           TRUE
back-log                                          50
basedir                                           /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/
big-tables                                        FALSE
bind-address                                      (No default value)
binlog-cache-size                                 32768
binlog-direct-non-transactional-updates           FALSE
binlog-format                                     STATEMENT
binlog-row-event-max-size                         1024
binlog-stmt-cache-size                            32768
bulk-insert-buffer-size                           8388608
character-set-client-handshake                    TRUE
character-set-filesystem                          binary
character-set-server                              latin1
character-sets-dir                                /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/share/charsets/
chroot                                            (No default value)
collation-server                                  latin1_swedish_ci
completion-type                                   NO_CHAIN
concurrent-insert                                 AUTO
connect-timeout                                   10
console                                           FALSE
datadir                                           /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/data/
date-format                                       %Y-%m-%d
datetime-format                                   %Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s
default-storage-engine                            InnoDB
default-time-zone                                 (No default value)
default-week-format                               0
delay-key-write                                   ON
delayed-insert-limit                              100
delayed-insert-timeout                            300
delayed-queue-size                                1000
des-key-file                                      (No default value)
disconnect-slave-event-count                      0
div-precision-increment                           4
engine-condition-pushdown                         TRUE
event-scheduler                                   OFF
expire-logs-days                                  0
external-locking                                  FALSE
flush                                             FALSE
flush-time                                        0
ft-boolean-syntax                                 + -><()~*:""&|
ft-max-word-len                                   84
ft-min-word-len                                   4
ft-query-expansion-limit                          20
ft-stopword-file                                  (No default value)
gdb                                               FALSE
general-log                                       FALSE
general-log-file                                  /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/data/JJBOOKS-Server02.log
group-concat-max-len                              1024
help                                              TRUE
ignore-builtin-innodb                             FALSE
init-file                                         (No default value)
init-rpl-role                                     MASTER
interactive-timeout                               28800
join-buffer-size                                  131072
keep-files-on-create                              FALSE
key-buffer-size                                   402653184
key-cache-age-threshold                           300
key-cache-block-size                              1024
key-cache-division-limit                          100
language                                          /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/share/
large-pages                                       FALSE
lc-messages                                       en_US
lc-messages-dir                                   /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/share/
lc-time-names                                     en_US
local-infile                                      TRUE
lock-wait-timeout                                 31536000
log                                               /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/data/JJBOOKS-Server02.log
log-bin                                           /usr/local/mysql/data/mysql-bin
log-bin-index                                     (No default value)
log-bin-trust-function-creators                   TRUE
log-error                                         /usr/local/mysql/data/mysql.err
log-isam                                          myisam.log
log-output                                        FILE
log-queries-not-using-indexes                     FALSE
log-short-format                                  FALSE
log-slave-updates                                 FALSE
log-slow-admin-statements                         FALSE
log-slow-queries                                  /usr/local/mysql/data/slow/mysql-slow.log
log-slow-slave-statements                         FALSE
log-tc                                            tc.log
log-tc-size                                       24576
log-warnings                                      1
long-query-time                                   0
low-priority-updates                              FALSE
lower-case-table-names                            0
master-info-file                                  /usr/local/mysql/data/
master-retry-count                                86400
max-allowed-packet                                134217728
max-binlog-cache-size                             18446744073709547520
max-binlog-dump-events                            0
max-binlog-size                                   1073741824
max-binlog-stmt-cache-size                        18446744073709547520
max-connect-errors                                1000000
max-connections                                   151
max-delayed-threads                               20
max-error-count                                   64
max-heap-table-size                               16777216
max-join-size                                     18446744073709551615
max-length-for-sort-data                          1024
max-long-data-size                                134217728
max-prepared-stmt-count                           16382
max-relay-log-size                                0
max-seeks-for-key                                 18446744073709551615
max-sort-length                                   1024
max-sp-recursion-depth                            0
max-tmp-tables                                    32
max-user-connections                              0
max-write-lock-count                              18446744073709551615
memlock                                           FALSE
metadata-locks-cache-size                         1024
min-examined-row-limit                            0
multi-range-count                                 256
net-buffer-length                                 16384
net-read-timeout                                  30
net-retry-count                                   10
net-write-timeout                                 60
new                                               FALSE
old                                               FALSE
old-alter-table                                   FALSE
old-passwords                                     FALSE
old-style-user-limits                             FALSE
open-files-limit                                  1185
optimizer-prune-level                             1
optimizer-search-depth                            62
optimizer-switch                                  index_merge=on,index_merge_union=on,index_merge_sort_union=on,index_merge_intersection=on,engine_condition_pushdown=on
performance-schema                                FALSE
performance-schema-events-waits-history-long-size 10000
performance-schema-events-waits-history-size      10
performance-schema-max-cond-classes               80
performance-schema-max-cond-instances             1000
performance-schema-max-file-classes               50
performance-schema-max-file-handles               32768
performance-schema-max-file-instances             10000
performance-schema-max-mutex-classes              200
performance-schema-max-mutex-instances            1000000
performance-schema-max-rwlock-classes             30
performance-schema-max-rwlock-instances           1000000
performance-schema-max-table-handles              100000
performance-schema-max-table-instances            50000
performance-schema-max-thread-classes             50
performance-schema-max-thread-instances           1000
pid-file                                          /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/data/
plugin-dir                                        /usr/local/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-x86_64/lib/plugin/
plugin-load                                       (No default value)
port                                              3306
port-open-timeout                                 0
preload-buffer-size                               32768
profiling-history-size                            15
query-alloc-block-size                            8192
query-cache-limit                                 1048576
query-cache-min-res-unit                          4096
query-cache-size                                  536870912
query-cache-type                                  ON
query-cache-wlock-invalidate                      FALSE
query-prealloc-size                               8192
range-alloc-block-size                            4096
read-buffer-size                                  2097152
read-only                                         FALSE
read-rnd-buffer-size                              8388608
relay-log                                         /usr/local/mysql/data/mysql-relay-bin
relay-log-index                                   /usr/local/mysql/data/mysql-relay-bin.index
relay-log-info-file                               /usr/local/mysql/data/
relay-log-purge                                   TRUE
relay-log-recovery                                FALSE
relay-log-space-limit                             0
replicate-same-server-id                          FALSE
report-host                                       (No default value)
report-password                                   (No default value)
report-port                                       0
report-user                                       (No default value)
rpl-recovery-rank                                 0
safe-user-create                                  FALSE
secure-auth                                       FALSE
secure-file-priv                                  (No default value)
server-id                                         2
show-slave-auth-info                              FALSE
skip-grant-tables                                 FALSE
skip-name-resolve                                 TRUE
skip-networking                                   FALSE
skip-show-database                                FALSE
skip-slave-start                                  FALSE
slave-compressed-protocol                         FALSE
slave-exec-mode                                   STRICT
slave-load-tmpdir                                 /tmp
slave-max-allowed-packet                          1073741824
slave-net-timeout                                 3600
slave-skip-errors                                 (No default value)
slave-transaction-retries                         10
slow-launch-time                                  2
slow-query-log                                    TRUE
slow-query-log-file                               /usr/local/mysql/data/slow/mysql-slow.log
socket                                            /tmp/mysql.sock
sort-buffer-size                                  2097152
sporadic-binlog-dump-fail                         FALSE
ssl                                               FALSE
ssl-ca                                            (No default value)
ssl-capath                                        (No default value)
ssl-cert                                          (No default value)
ssl-cipher                                        (No default value)
ssl-key                                           (No default value)
stored-program-cache                              256
super-large-pages                                 FALSE
symbolic-links                                    TRUE
sync-binlog                                       0
sync-frm                                          TRUE
sync-master-info                                  0
sync-relay-log                                    0
sync-relay-log-info                               0
sysdate-is-now                                    FALSE
table-cache                                       512
table-definition-cache                            400
table-open-cache                                  512
tc-heuristic-recover                              COMMIT
temp-pool                                         TRUE
thread-cache-size                                 8
thread-concurrency                                8
thread-handling                                   one-thread-per-connection
thread-stack                                      262144
time-format                                       %H:%i:%s
timed-mutexes                                     FALSE
tmp-table-size                                    16777216
tmpdir                                            /tmp
transaction-alloc-block-size                      8192
transaction-isolation                             REPEATABLE-READ
transaction-prealloc-size                         4096
updatable-views-with-limit                        YES
verbose                                           TRUE
wait-timeout                                      28800

Plugins have parameters that are not reflected in this list
because execution stopped before plugins were initialized.

To see what values a running MySQL server is using, type
'mysqladmin variables' instead of 'mysqld --verbose --help'.
140805  8:40:18 [ERROR] Aborting

너무 많은 내용이 나와 어디서 찾아야 할지 모르겠다면 다음과 같이 사용하면 된다.

#mysqld --verbose --help | grep -A 1 'Default options'

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
/etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/etc/my.cnf ~/.my.cnf

Posted by 24X365

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